The University of Chitral Journal of Management Studies (UOCHJMS) is multidisciplinary journal with a long established history of excellence in management research. UOCHJMS publishes innovative empirical and conceptual articles which advance knowledge of management and organisation broadly defined, in such fields as organization theory, organizational behaviour, human resource management, strategy, international business, entrepreneurship, innovation and critical management studies. UOCHJMS has an inclusive ethos and is open to a wide range of methodological approaches and philosophical underpinnings.